‘Participation is a general concept covering different forms of decision-making by a number of involved groups’ (Wulz, 1986).
Participatory design is based on five fundamental points. First, Politics in terms of people who are affected by a decision should have an opportunity to influence it, second, people in terms of being experts of their lives and can have an influential role in design, third, context in terms of situations, fourth, methods as being the means of users to gain influence and fifth, product in terms of the final goal of participatory design. On that final goal is hidden the empowering quality of life that participatory design is meant to offer (Halskov & Hansen, 2014), Throughout the literature, participatory planning can be organized through three main thematics consisting of varying approaches. First, motives/objectives of deciding to engage participatory design, then degrees of participation that may occur, and third types of participants that get involved in terms of networks and scale.
The primary motivation of participatory design, back in the Scandinavian context of 1960-1970, was linked to ‘the democratization of work life’ (Schuler & Namioka, 1993, p. 251). It has emerged, as a reaction to the ‘mismanagement of the physical environment’ (Sanoff, 2006, p. 140) and as an attempt to improve the quality of design and planning. Today the democratic and pragmatic efforts of participatory design
The degree of participation refers to a range of influence that participants have in the decision-making resulting
- Design for the users ( 0% Participation)
- Design with the users ( 16%-85% Participation)
- Design by the users (100% Participation)
In reality, the evaluation of many participatory research practices is somewhere in between the two extremes, focusing more on design with the users (Bergvall-Kåreborn & Ståhlbrost, 2008, p. 107). However, the given theoretical process, it might provide an insufficient degree of realism that designers need to cope with, due to time and budget constraints. If it is to remain grounded
- How much participation is enough?
- How much commitment seems reasonable?
- How do you keep the participants engaged in the process in the long run of participatory design?
- Should the reasons
ofparticipation be ethical or financial?
- How do you coordinate multiple views and incentives in participatory dialogues?